1938: First front-mounted swimmer's breathing tube patent filed. In December 1938, French spearfisherman Maxime Forjot and his business partner Albert Méjean file a patent application in France for a breathing tube worn on the front of the head over a single-lens diving mask enclosing the eyes and the nose and it is granted French patent 847848 on 10 July 1939.[29][30][31][32] In July 1939, Popular Science magazine publishes an article containing illustrations of a spearfisherman using a curved length of hosepipe as a front-mounted breathing tube and wearing a set of swimming goggles over his eyes and a pair of swimming fins on his feet.[33] In the first French monograph on spearfishing La Chasse aux Poissons (1940), medical researcher and amateur spearfisherman Dr Raymond Pulvénis illustrates his "Tuba", a breathing tube he designed to be worn on the front of the head over a single-lens diving mask enclosing the eyes and the nose. Francophone swimmers and divers have called their breathing tube "un tuba" ever since. In 1943, Raymond Pulvénis and his brother Roger obtain a Spanish patent for their improved breathing tube mouthpiece design.[34] In 1956, the UK diving equipment manufacturer E. T. Skinner (Typhoon) markets a "frontal" breathing tube with a bracket attachable to the screw at the top of an oval diving mask.[35] Although it falls out of favour with underwater swimmers eventually, the front-mounted snorkel becomes the breathing tube of choice in competitive swimming and finswimming (see Figure 4) because it contributes to the swimmer's hydrodynamic profile.
Ocean Beach is a beach on the west coast of San Francisco, California, United States, bordering the Pacific Ocean. It is adjacent to Golden Gate Park, the Richmond District, and the Sunset District. The Great Highway runs alongside the beach, and the Cliff House and the site of the former Sutro Baths sit at the northern end. The beach is a part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, which is administered by the National Park Service.
Dehydration is another concern. Hydrating well before entering the water is highly recommended, especially if one intends to snorkel for several hours. Proper hydration also prevents cramps. Snorkelers who hyperventilate to extend sub-surface time can experience hypocapnia if they hyperventilate prior to submerging. This can in turn lead to "shallow water blackout". Snorkeling with a buddy and remaining aware of the buddy's condition at all times can help avoid these difficulties.[citation needed]
2 of the best ways is enjoy the warm waters of the Kadavu Archipelago is to snorkel or scuba dive. If you’ve spent any time planning a trip to warmer climates, you’ve undoubtedly heard and read about snorkeling and scuba diving a lot — sometimes interchangeably. So what is the difference between snorkeling and scuba diving, and which activity is best for you?

While you will need a respectable budget, if you give Bermuda a chance you’ll find an island home to some of the most beautiful beaches in all of North America and the Caribbean. The locals are incredibly friendly people and you can find some world-class food here too. To keep you busy, there is tons of snorkeling, some caves to explore, lots of hiking, and tons more!
Maui, Oahu, the Big Island and Kauai are just a 6-hour flight from the West Coast of the United States. Many Californians keep a second home on one of the islands, getting away for Christmas, Thanksgiving and other major holidays. If you are looking for tropical getaways in the U.S., Hawaii is an amazing destination, featured in countless movies and offering a diverse range of experiences.

Photographs of Bernardini and articles about the event were widely carried by the press. The International Herald Tribune alone ran nine stories on the event.[63] French newspaper Le Figaro wrote, "People were craving the simple pleasures of the sea and the sun. For women, wearing a bikini signaled a kind of second liberation. There was really nothing sexual about this. It was instead a celebration of freedom and a return to the joys in life."[38]
1938: First swimmers’ mask with integrated breathing tubes. In 1938, French naval officer Yves Le Prieur introduces his "Nautilus" full-face diving mask with hoses emerging from the sides and leading upwards to an air inlet device whose ball valve opens when it is above water and closes when it is submerged.[18][19][20] In November 1940, American spearfisherman Charles H. Wilen files his "swimmer’s mask" invention, which is granted US patent 2,317,237 of 20 April 1943.[21] The device resembles a full-face diving mask incorporating two breathing tubes topped with valves projecting above the surface for inhalation and exhalation purposes. On 11 July 1944, he obtains US design patent 138,286 for a simpler version of this mask with a flutter valve at the bottom and a single breathing tube with a ball valve at the top.[22] Throughout their heydey of the 1950s and early 1960s, masks with integrated tubes appear in the catalogues of American, Australian, British, French, German, Greek, Italian and Spanish swimming and diving equipment manufacturers. Meanwhile, in 1957, the US monthly product-testing magazine Consumer Reports concludes that "snorkel-masks have some value for swimmers lying on the surface while watching the depths in water free of vegetation and other similar hazards, but they are not recommended for a dive 'into the blue'".[23] According to an underwater swimming equipment review in the British national weekly newspaper The Sunday Times in December 1973, "the mask with inbuilt snorkel is doubly dangerous (...) A ban on the manufacture and import of these masks is long overdue in Britain".[24] In a decree of 2 August 1989,[25] the French government suspends the manufacture, importation and marketing of ball-valve snorkel-masks. By the noughties, just two swim masks with attached breathing tubes remain in production worldwide: the Majorca sub 107S single-snorkel model[26] and the Balco 558 twin-snorkel full-face model,[27] both manufactured in Greece. In May 2014, the French Decathlon company files its new-generation full-face snorkel-mask design, which is granted US design patent 775,722[28] on 3 January 2017, entering production as the "Easybreath" mask (see Figure 3) designated for surface snorkelling only.
Generally shallow reefs ranging from sea level to 1 to 4 meters (3 to 13 ft) are favored by snorkelers. Deeper reefs can also be explored, but repeated breath-holding to dive to those depths limits the number of practitioners, and raises the bar on the required fitness and skill level. Risk increases with increased depth and duration of the breath-hold excursions from the surface.[citation needed]

The scuba diving equipment is more complex and heavier compared to that of snorkeling. It comprises a pressurized gas tank filled with Enriched Air Nitrox with extra oxygen: 36% oxygen and therefore less nitrogen to reduce decompression sickness. In the "single-hose" two-stage design, the first stage regulator reduces the cylinder pressure of about 200 bar (3000 psi) to an intermediate level of about 10 bar (145 psi). The second stage demand valve regulator, connected via a low pressure hose to the first stage, delivers the breathing gas at the correct ambient pressure to the diver's mouth and lungs. The diver's exhaled gases are exhausted directly to the environment as waste. The first stage typically has at least one outlet delivering breathing gas at unreduced tank pressure. This is connected to the diver's pressure gauge or computer, in order to show how much breathing gas remains.


Although snorkels come in many forms, they are primarily classified by their dimensions and secondarily by their orientation and shape. The length and the inner diameter (or inner volume) of the tube are paramount health and safety considerations when matching a snorkel to the morphology of its end-user. The orientation and shape of the tube must also be taken into account when matching a snorkel to its end use while seeking to optimise ergonomic factors such as streamlining, airflow and water retention.
To date, all national and international standards on snorkels specify two ranges of tube dimensions to meet the health and safety needs of their end-users, whether young or old, short or tall, with low or high lung capacity (See Figure 1 and Figure 2). The snorkel dimensions at issue are the total length, the inner diameter and/or the inner volume of the tube. The specifications of the standardisation bodies are tabulated below.

here’s a spot that might be interesting to some people. I’ve spent a month two years ago in Cozumel, Mexico (right across from Cancun) and found it to be really cool. I worked on cruise ships and it is one of the major cruise ship stops so there are tourists but mostly during the day while the ships are in port. Other than that it’s a cool and cheap place to stay. Using the app HomeAway (similar to AirBnB) I’ve found a place (it was a studio in a 7 apartment bulding, with a gate and a small pool in the back) that I paid $350 for a month for. The internet was very good and there were a few big supermarkets close by. Cozumel, for example is one of the top spots for scuba diving in the Caribbean and the side of the island that’s opposite to downtown where the cruise ships dock is full of beaches that rarely anyone goes to but it’s a great spot for windsurfing for example.


Similar photographs were taken of Anita Ekberg and Sophia Loren, among others. According to The Guardian, Bardot's photographs in particular turned Saint-Tropez into the beachwear capital of the world,[60] with Bardot identified as the original Cannes bathing beauty.[93] Bardot's photography helped to enhance the public profile of the festival, and Cannes in turn played a crucial role in her career.[94]
Close to this island is a little island that provides excellent snorkeling opportunities. You may even spot a few reef sharks. Bathtub-warm water and fine sand beaches kept me here for over three weeks. It will do the same for you. Visit between November and March for the best weather and the fewest people. May through October sees a harsh monsoon season that shuts the island down. The best way to get there is by boat from Pak Bara.
Most accommodations are located on the island of Providenciales, located in the Northwest Caicos Islands, which offers 12 miles of hotels along the sparkling white Grace Bay Beach. This island is known as a party island and features luxury resorts, fancy shops and fine restaurants. Other noteworthy islands include North, South and Middle Caicos, Salt Clay and Grand Turk, home to the capital city of Cockburn Town. No matter where you choose to spend your relaxing vacation, rest assured it will be spectacularly beautiful and a perfect piece of paradise. Keep reading for more island destinations. Readm ore
In the heart of the South Pacific, Fiji, famous for its white sand beaches, crystal clear waters and unspoiled natural environment, is made up of more than 300 small islands. The perennial favorites are the Mamanuca and Yasawa island groups, just north of Fiji’s main island, Viti Levu. There you will find a kind of paradise you can’t find anywhere else. Snorkeling and diving, relaxing in the shade of a palm tree, and feeling the soft sea air drift by while sipping on a fruity umbrella drink — it’s heavenly.
We all love a basic black one piece swimsuit or one of our modest tankinis now and then, but when it comes to your summer swimsuit, the hotter the better! Ditch the one piece bathing suits and go bold and statement-making in a skimpy bikini, like string bikinis swimwear! Is there anything more daring than string bikini bottoms?! Or try the super trendy high waisted bikini bottoms with a high neck bikini top to create a flattering shape. Trade the high waisted swimsuit for boy-style swim shorts for women-- another slimming option! For tops, go with a halter top bikini or a push up bikini. Finish off the look with stylish swim cover ups and beach cover ups and you’re ready to make waves.
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Northern California beaches. They tend to be cold and windy, and Ocean Beach is no exception. There are those glorious warm days that happen a few times per year in the Fall. If you choose this location for a photo shoot make sure that you wear layers at this location. And arm yourself with hair ties and clips, because it can get windy.  Take it from me, a family photographer (K. Sienk Photography)!
Snorkeling is mentioned by Aristotle in his Parts of Animals. He refers to divers using "instruments for respiration" resembling the elephant's trunk.[11] Some evidence suggests that snorkeling may have originated in Crete some 5,000 years ago as sea sponge farmers used hollowed out reeds to submerge and retrieve natural sponge for use in trade and commerce.[12] In the fifteenth century, Leonardo da Vinci drew designs for an underwater breathing device consisting of cane tubes with a mask to cover the mouth at the demand end and a float to keep the tubes above water at the supply end.[13][14] The following timeline traces the modern history of the swimmers' snorkel during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
I couldn’t tell whether other visitors were drawn to T.I. for the same reasons I was, namely that winter sucks and a tropical air hanger seemed like the strangest way to deal with it. But while there, it occurred to me that T.I. also offers an alternative for people priced out of international travel. And for families with small kids, the heated dome offers a level of logistical ease that’s hard to beat. T.I. may be an approximation of a tropical vacation, but it’s one without long flights or passport stress, where no child could ever claim to be bored and nothing is more than a two minute walk away.

The Maldives is located in the Indian Ocean and is the smallest Asian country in both population and size. What this country lacks in size, it makes up for in beauty with some of the most gorgeous dive sites and beaches in the world. The government follows a “one island, one resort” policy and limits the height of the resorts to be equal or lesser than the tallest tree.

In 1997, Miss Maryland Jamie Fox became the first contestant in 50 years to compete in a two-piece swimsuit at the Miss America Pageant.[111] Actresses in action films like Blue Crush (2002) and Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle (2003) made the two-piece "the millennial equivalent of the power suit", according to Gina Bellafonte of The New York Times,[38]


I’m a Maui native and it is not that expensive! You just need to do it the smart way, avoid tourist traps and ABC stores, stop at Costco to stock up on supplies before you reach your hotel. Many of the best things Hawaii has to offer are free: beaches, sunsets, hikes, snorkeling, walking the streets of small beach towns. Condos are also way cheaper than hotels and they are usually beachfront.
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