1969: First national standard on snorkels. In December 1969, the British Standards Institution publishes British standard BS 4532 entitled "Specification for snorkels and face masks"[46] and prepared by a committee on which the British Rubber Manufacturers' Association, the British Sub-Aqua Club, the Department for Education and Science, the Federation of British Manufacturers of Sports and Games, the Ministry of Defence Navy Department and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents are represented. This British standard sets different maximum and minimum snorkel dimensions for adult and child users, specifies materials and design features for tubes and mouthpieces and requires a warning label and a set of instructions to be enclosed with each snorkel. In February 1980 and June 1991, the Deutsches Institut für Normung publishes the first and second editions of German standard DIN 7878 on snorkel safety and testing.[47] This German standard sets safety and testing criteria comparable to British standard BS 4532 with an additional requirement that every snorkel must be topped with a fluorescent red or orange band to alert other water users of the snorkeller's presence. In November 1988, the Austrian Standards Institute publishes Austrian standard ÖNORM S 4223[48] entitled "Tauch-Zubehör; Schnorchel; Abmessungen, sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen, Prüfung, Normkennzeichnung" in German, subtitled "Diving accessories; snorkel; dimensions, safety requirements, testing, marking of conformity" in English and closely resembling German Standard DIN 7878 of February 1980 in specifications. The first and second editions of European standard EN 1972 on snorkel requirements and test methods[49] appear in July 1997 and December 2015. This European standard refines snorkel dimension, airflow and joint-strength testing and matches snorkel measurements to the user's height and lung capacity. The snorkels regulated by these British, German and European standards exclude combined masks and snorkels in which the snorkel tubes open into the mask.
Some commercial snorkeling organizations require snorkelers at their venue to wear an inflatable vest, similar to a personal flotation device. They are usually bright yellow or orange and have a device that allows users to inflate or deflate the device to adjust their buoyancy. However, these devices hinder and prevent a snorkeler from free diving to any depth. Especially in cooler water, a wetsuit of appropriate thickness and coverage may be worn; wetsuits do provide some buoyancy without as much resistance to submersion. In the tropics, snorkelers (especially those with pale skin) often wear a rashguard or a shirt and/or board shorts in order to help protect the skin of the back and upper legs against sunburn.[citation needed]
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1939: First side-mounted swimmers’ breathing tube patent filed. In December 1939, expatriate Russian spearfisherman Alexandre Kramarenko files a patent in France for a breathing tube worn at the side of the head with a ball valve at the top to exclude water and a flutter valve at the bottom. Kramarenko and his business partner Charles H. Wilen refile the invention in March 1940 in the USA, where their "underwater apparatus for swimmers" is granted US patent 2,317,236 on 20 April 1943;[36] after entering production in France, the device is called "Le Respirator".[37] The co-founder of Scubapro Dick Bonin is credited with the introduction of the flexible-hose snorkel in the mid-1950s and the exhaust valve to ease snorkel clearing in 1980.[38] In 1964, US Divers markets an L-shaped snorkel designed to outperform J-shaped models by increasing breathing ease, cutting water drag and eliminating the "water trap".[39] In the late 1960s, Dacor launches a "wraparound big-barrel" contoured snorkel, which closely follows the outline of the wearer's head and comes with a wider bore to improve airflow.[40] The findings of the 1977 report "Allergic reactions to mask skirts, regulator mouthpieces and snorkel mouthpieces"[41] encourage diving equipment manufacturers to fit snorkels with hypoallergenic gum rubber and medical-grade silicone mouthpieces (see Figure 5). In the world of underwater swimming and diving, the side-mounted snorkel has long become the norm, although new-generation full-face swim masks with integrated snorkels are beginning to grow in popularity for use in floating and swimming on the surface.


The experience of witnessing the parade of big marine life finning along the edge of a reef wall tends to be limited to certified scuba divers. Off the island of Little Cayman, the Bloody Bay Wall starts at a snorkeler-friendly depth of 18 feet, then plummets like the side of a skyscraper to 6,000 feet. Even at 18 feet, you’ll encounter eagle rays, sea turtles and Nassau grouper, a 17-inch species beloved by dive guides for its Labrador-Retriever-like personality.
An island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; examples are Singapore and its causeway, and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde. Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are, strictly speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is generally not considered an island.
13 restaurants and bars offer a wide variety of dining experiences. As well as a buffet breakfast in the Sawadee Restaurant, the Palm Beach Restaurant, Wok House and Mondial Food Court offer a selection of international specialities and freshly made cocktails. Tropical Garden features multiple-course meals, while Tropino Restaurant serves children's food.
The Maldives is located in the Indian Ocean and is the smallest Asian country in both population and size. What this country lacks in size, it makes up for in beauty with some of the most gorgeous dive sites and beaches in the world. The government follows a “one island, one resort” policy and limits the height of the resorts to be equal or lesser than the tallest tree.

There are many luxury resorts in Hawaii, as well as more affordable condo rentals and B&Bs. The most expensive part of the trip is airfare, so it’s a good idea to look for low season prices. If you decide to go during spring break, Labor Day or Memorial Day, don’t wait until the last minute or you may not get a seat. Fly to Oahu where you can spend a night on the famous Waikiki Beach in Honolulu, or directly to Maui or the Big Island.
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Year-round, the 100-foot in-water visibility is enough to lure snorkelers to the reefs of the Turks and Caicos Islands. Winter only sweetens the pot: December through February, scores of humpback whales come to the Caribbean to mate or give birth, and the Columbus Passage between the islands of Grand Turk and Salt Cay is on their migratory route. This stretch, shallow and warm, is an ideal training grounds for momma to teach baby about breathing and other whale-life basics — making it also ideal to behold greatness underwater.

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Although snorkels come in many forms, they are primarily classified by their dimensions and secondarily by their orientation and shape. The length and the inner diameter (or inner volume) of the tube are paramount health and safety considerations when matching a snorkel to the morphology of its end-user. The orientation and shape of the tube must also be taken into account when matching a snorkel to its end use while seeking to optimise ergonomic factors such as streamlining, airflow and water retention.
Just bought the Super Snorkel and brought it to Montauk last weekend. Boy was it a hit! Everyone wanted to try out the snorkel. We even had people who had been snorkeling for years there. They were blown away by the performance. It is amazing to be able to go underwater WITHOUT anything in your mouth. No more jaw tightness from calming on the snorkel mouthpiece. I can't wait to use it again on our next trip, or even at the pool.
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