Snorkels constitute respiratory dead space. When the user takes in a fresh breath, some of the previously exhaled air which remains in the snorkel is inhaled again, reducing the amount of fresh air in the inhaled volume, and increasing the risk of a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood, which can result in hypercapnia. The greater the volume of the tube, and the smaller the tidal volume of breathing, the more this problem is exacerbated. A smaller diameter tube reduces the dead volume, but also increases resistance to airflow and so increases the work of breathing. Occasional exhalation through the nose while snorkeling will slightly reduce the buildup of carbon dioxide, and may help in keeping the mask clear of water. It may also increase fogging.

A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is eventually "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts. Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago; its older, northerly trend is the Line Islands. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu. Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hotspot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, which was formed in 1963.
Fraser Island in Australia surprised us. It's a grand adventure to four wheel it down the 75 mile beach, but it is also a great tropical vacation. Resorts have swimming pools, you can swim inland on fresh water beaches with pure white sand, there are champagne pools to relax in and there are plenty of spots to unwind. So while you may not consider Fraser Island for your typical tropical adventure, we definitely feel it is one and worthy of being the last of our best tropical islands in photos. See all about it here on our Fraser Island Tour
9:30am, 3:30pm moderate 4.5 hrs Food & Beverages
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There are two parking lots and they tend to fill up fast on weekends, so you might have to settle for on-street parking near here. The Ocean Beach Bike Path runs inland along the river from here for bikers and runners. The extreme north end of this beach is called Dog Beach and it’s overrun with happy pooches. To get here, take the Ocean Beach Freeway (I-8) west to the end then follow Sunset Cliffs Boulevard to West Point Loma Blvd which ends at the beach.
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