Snorkels come in two orientations: Front-mounted (see Figure 4) and side-mounted (see Figure 5). The first snorkel to be patented in 1938 was front-mounted, worn with the tube over the front of the face and secured with a bracket to the diving mask. Front-mounted snorkels proved popular in European snorkeling until the late 1950s, when side-mounted snorkels came into the ascendancy. Front-mounted snorkels experienced a comeback a decade later as a piece of competitive swimming equipment to be used in pool workouts and in finswimming races, where they outperform side-mounted snorkels in streamlining. Front-mounted snorkels are attached to the head with a special head bracket fitted with straps to be adjusted and buckled around the temples (see Figure 4).
1939: First side-mounted swimmers’ breathing tube patent filed. In December 1939, expatriate Russian spearfisherman Alexandre Kramarenko files a patent in France for a breathing tube worn at the side of the head with a ball valve at the top to exclude water and a flutter valve at the bottom. Kramarenko and his business partner Charles H. Wilen refile the invention in March 1940 in the USA, where their "underwater apparatus for swimmers" is granted US patent 2,317,236 on 20 April 1943; after entering production in France, the device is called "Le Respirator". The co-founder of Scubapro Dick Bonin is credited with the introduction of the flexible-hose snorkel in the mid-1950s and the exhaust valve to ease snorkel clearing in 1980. In 1964, US Divers markets an L-shaped snorkel designed to outperform J-shaped models by increasing breathing ease, cutting water drag and eliminating the "water trap". In the late 1960s, Dacor launches a "wraparound big-barrel" contoured snorkel, which closely follows the outline of the wearer's head and comes with a wider bore to improve airflow. The findings of the 1977 report "Allergic reactions to mask skirts, regulator mouthpieces and snorkel mouthpieces" encourage diving equipment manufacturers to fit snorkels with hypoallergenic gum rubber and medical-grade silicone mouthpieces (see Figure 5). In the world of underwater swimming and diving, the side-mounted snorkel has long become the norm, although new-generation full-face swim masks with integrated snorkels are beginning to grow in popularity for use in floating and swimming on the surface.
Situated in the world's largest free-standing dome, Tropical Islands features an indoor rain forest, spa facilities, and lagoon-style pool. Decorated with authentic palm trees and an artificial beach, it also boasts Germany's highest water slide. The outdoor AMAZONIA area also features Whitewater River, a unique lazy river pool. Free WiFi access is available in many spots in the resort.
1950: First use of "snorkel" to denote a breathing device for swimmers. In November 1950, the Honolulu Sporting Goods Co. introduces a "swim-pipe" resembling Kramarenko and Wilen’s side-mounted ball- and flutter-valve breathing tube design, urging children and adults to "try the human version of the submarine snorkel and be like a fish". Every advertisement in the first issue of Skin Diver magazine in December 1951 uses the alternative spelling "snorkles" to denote swimmers’ breathing tubes. In 1955, Albert VanderKogel classes stand-alone breathing tubes and swim masks with integrated breathing tubes as "pipe snorkels" and "mask snorkels" respectively. In 1957, the British Sub-Aqua Club journal features a lively debate about the standardisation of diving terms in general and the replacement of the existing British term "breathing tube" with the American term "snorkel" in particular. The following year sees the première of the 1958 British thriller film The Snorkel, whose title references a diving mask topped with two built-in breathing tubes. To date, every national and international standard on snorkels uses the term "snorkel" exclusively.
If you followed the coverage of Hurricane Irma in September 2017, you might expect that the reefs of Key Largo suffered damage. Thankfully, this upper Florida Key was within the eye of the storm, and thus the reefs were largely spared any consequence. The high-profile corals of Molasses Reef, part of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, are still surrounded by cruising nurse sharks, Southern stingrays, and several species of turtles including loggerhead, green and hawksbill. The famed Christ of the Abyss statue, found at the John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, is also unharmed and the park is accepting visitors.
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A great place to first discover the underwater treasures of this independent island nation east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean is Blue Bay Marine Park. Visibility is near-perfect and it's great for beginners, as you can snorkel straight from the beach. The park is home to angelfish, damselfish, parrotfish, and clownfish—among other colorful exotics. Note: Don't forget to look up once in a while, as you'll spot airplanes landing and taking off from the architecturally impressive Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam International Airport.
Despite the garment's initial success in France, women worldwide continued to wear traditional one-piece swimsuits. When his sales stalled, Réard went back to designing and selling orthodox knickers. In 1950, American swimsuit mogul Fred Cole, owner of mass market swimwear firm Cole of California, told Time that he had "little but scorn for France's famed Bikinis." Réard himself would later describe it as a "two-piece bathing suit which reveals everything about a girl except for her mother's maiden name." Fashion magazine Modern Girl Magazine in 1957 stated that "it is hardly necessary to waste words over the so-called bikini since it is inconceivable that any girl with tact and decency would ever wear such a thing".
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Just wanted to add one recommendation for digital nomads which is Quito, Ecuador. I just spent the last 3 months in Ecuador and based myself out of Quito which I absolutely fell in love with. Fast internet throughout the city. Affordable condos or houses to rent monthly ($500-800 range). My slowest Internet at one condo was 4mbs and fastest was 90mbs at one new condo I stayed at. But in general, most places had 4-6mb Internet.
Located in the world's largest free-standing dome, Tropical Islands features an indoor rain forest, spa facilities, and lagoon-style pool. Decorated with authentic palm trees and an artificial beach, it also features Germany's highest water slide. The outdoor AMAZONIA area also features Whitewater River, a unique lazy river pool. Free WiFi access is available in many spots in the resort.
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Went to Fiji for my honeymoon and i don’t think that trip can be topped. We wanted seclusion, privacy and romance and thats what we got. Our bure was 20 feet from the beach where we could relax and maybe see 1 or two people all day. It was incredible. The resort was called Matangi island resort. Great staff, great food…. It’s as close to perfect as you can get.
Teen magazines of late 1940s and 1950s featured similar designs of midriff-baring suits and tops. However, midriff fashion was stated as only for beaches and informal events and considered indecent to be worn in public. Hollywood endorsed the new glamor in films like 1949's Neptune's Daughter in which Esther Williams wore provocatively named costumes such as "Double Entendre" and "Honey Child".
“[L]andscapes are cultures before they are nature—constructs of the imagination projected onto wood and water and rock,” Simon Schama wrote in 1995. In 2019, the quote appeared in the introduction to John Berger’s Landscapes, which I’d finally found time to read in a zero-gravity lounge chair overlooking the sea. But it wasn’t just any sea. The water was really water but not the salty kind, instead of a sandy bottom there was stainless steel flooring and, from the horizon, a gigantic canvas screen-printed with a photo of a blue sky rose up. Outside the dome, the sun had broken through clouds; inside, it filtered through a UV screen. I applied more sunscreen to my face. I considered taking a dip.
The cultural center of the Island (and the expat scene) is the town of Ubud in the interior mountains. If you like spiritual hippies and yogis, you will find your tribe here. If you want to surf (or safely watch the pros doing it) you will want to check out the southern Bukit Peninsula that has legendary breaks like Dreamland, Uluwatu and Padang Padang.
The dream digital nomad lifestyle here is to surf the morning high tide, work through the heat of the day in your air-conditioned villa, then surf the evening high tide. If you want a little more hustle and bustle, a few hours north is surfer’s paradise Tamarindo and on the Caribbean coast there is Puerto Viejo for digital nomads who love to surf and listen to lots of reggae.
Many people make the pilgrimage to Fiji to worship reefs resplendent in forests of lush, soft corals. But here’s the catch: you can’t necessarily find the best snorkeling spots near every island throughout the chain. Our top pick in the whole country is Somosomo Strait, found between the islands of Taveuni and Vanua Levu. And, yes, reefs do encircle the islands starting from shore, but to access the best of the best, namely Rainbow Reef, a boat tour is a must.
Monokini 1964 A monokini (also called topless swimsuit, unikini or numokini) is a women's one-piece garment equivalent to the lower half of a bikini. Originally a specific design conceived by Rudi Gernreich in 1964, the term is now used to describe any topless swimsuit, particularly a bikini bottom worn without a top. An extreme version of the monokini, the thong-style pubikini (which exposed the pubic region), was also designed by Rudi Gernreich in 1985.
Snorkel design is only limited by the imagination. Among recent innovations is the "collapsible snorkel", which can be folded up in a pocket for emergencies. One for competitive swimmers is a lightweight lap snorkel; with twin tubes another is a "restrictor cap" placed inside a snorkel barrel "restricting breathing by 40% to increase cardiovascular strength and build lung capacity". Some additional snorkel features such as shut-off and drain valves fell out of favour decades ago, only to return in the contemporary era as more reliable devices for incorporation into "dry" and "semi-dry" snorkels; see Figure 5 featuring a modern snorkel topped with a splash guard.
The Island of Jamaica in the West Indies is the ultimate vacation destination for the package tourist. But head out from behind the gates and you will discover a country filled with rich culture, fun activities and friendly and inviting people. And yes, the beaches are absolutely beautiful. Jamaica is so large, we captured many beautiful pictures of this tropical island. It was difficult to choose a favourite.
What was once a French colonial resort town in southern Cambodia is now a quiet coastal getaway surrounded by tropical islands. Known for its seafood market, where the fish practically jump from the water to your plate, it’s easy to see why Kep won’t be kept a secret for long. For the time being, you’ll find very few tourists among the locals sampling fresh crab, lobster, shrimp (and pretty much anything that swims) at its popular seafood market — you can go there around sunset and have yourself a five-star meal for less than a few dollars. Travelers visit Kep for its laid-back atmosphere rather than an extensive list of activities. In the past, Kep was primarily limited to expats living in Phnom Penh looking for a quiet weekend getaway, but with a variety of nearby tropical islands like Koh Tonsay — better known as Rabbit Island — it’s no wonder Kep is becoming more difficult for visitors to stay away from.
String bikini 1974 A string bikini (or a tie-side) gets its name from its design that consists of two triangular shaped pieces connected at the groin but not at the sides, where a thin "string" wraps around the waist tied together to connect the two parts. The structure of the side tie bottom leaves the hips bare and just tie the knots on the sides with spaghetti ties or with the sash ties. The first formal presentation of string bikini was done by Glen Tororich, a public relations agent, and his wife Brandi Perret-DuJon, a fashion model, for the opening of Le Petite Centre, a shopping area in the French Quarter of the New Orleans, Louisiana in 1974. String bikinis are one of the most popular variations of bikini.
As bikinis leave most of the body exposed to potentially dangerous UV radiation, overexposure can cause sunburn, skin cancer, as well as other acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eyes, and immune system. As a result, medical organizations recommend that bikini wearers protect themselves from UV radiation by using broad-spectrum sunscreen, which has been shown to protect against sunburn, skin cancer, wrinkling and sagging skin. Certain sunscreen ingredients can cause harm if they penetrate the skin over time.
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By making an analogy with words like bilingual and bilateral containing the Latin prefix "bi-" (meaning "two" in Latin), the word bikini was first back-derived as consisting of two parts, [bi + kini] by Rudi Gernreich, who introduced the monokini in 1964. Later swimsuit designs like the tankini and trikini further cemented this derivation. Over time the "–kini family" (as dubbed by author William Safire), including the "–ini sisters" (as dubbed by designer Anne Cole), expanded into a variety of swimwear including the monokini (also known as a numokini or unikini), seekini, tankini, camikini, hikini (also hipkini), minikini, face-kini, burkini, and microkini. The Language Report, compiled by lexicographer Susie Dent and published by the Oxford University Press (OUP) in 2003, considers lexicographic inventions like bandeaukini and camkini, two variants of the tankini, important to observe. Although "bikini" was originally a registered trademark of Réard, it has since become genericized.